Ajwain/Carom Seeds (Trachyspermum Ammi)

As long as people have been practicing medicine, plants have been employed as remedies. These plants include a range of bioactive substances that can treat ailments. Yavani is one of these herbs with medicinal properties. This plant belongs to the Apiaceae family. Yavani is known by the scientific name Trachyspermum ammi. In semi-arid or dry regions with salt-rich soil, Yavani thrives. A perennial herbaceous plant known as yavani grows every year. This plant has several branches and a stem that is highly striped. The leaves of the plants, on the other hand, are separated by two to three spaces. These leaves are divided into pinnate segments that are all straight.

There is a stem-covering umbel with inflorescence-like features. The umbel is composed of 16 umbellets. In addition to the 16 umbellets, there are 16 flowers. The tiny, white blossoms are tiny. They are known to be actinomorphic. The blooms' bilobed petals act as a substitute for stamens. Each flower has five petals and stamens. The ovary of the plant is inferiorly positioned and contains a stigma that resembles a knob. The plants produce ovoid and cordate fruits with a stable stylopodium and a scented cremocarp. These are grayish-brown in hue. Fruits have two compressed mericarps that are 1.7mm in width and 2mm in length. Each mericarp has six vittae and five plainly recognizable ridges. It has a tubular surface, which denotes the presence of just one seed.

General Description

Egypt's native herb is called yavani. Yavani is also referred to by other common names like Ajwain, Bishop's Weed, Ajowan, and others. This herb is commonly available around the world. The herb's Sanskrit name is Yavani, and it has been utilized in India for centuries. It is thought to control vata and kapha in Ayurveda. It aids in raising pitta.

Since every portion of the plant contains active ingredients that can treat illnesses, the entire plant is used to treat afflictions. The plants' roots have diuretic properties. Plant seeds have aphrodisiac, anti-microbial, fungicide, and anti-aggregatory properties. Additionally, these have a tendency to reduce respiratory problems, gastrointestinal infections, and anorexia. The plant's fruits can also treat piles and treat abdominal disorders since they have antispasmodic, stimulating, and carminative effects.

Because of the phytochemicals found in the plant's sections, the plant can heal illnesses. The plant's seeds are rich in minerals like calcium, cobalt, manganese, copper, iron, phosphorus, and more. They also contain flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, lipids, fibers, proteins, and carbs. Additionally, it includes vitamins like vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and others. The plant's essential oil contains a number of significant active components. The places where the essential oil is produced and found can affect its chemical makeup. On average, essential oils contain about 26 different compounds, including the primary component thymol, as well as oleic acid, linoleic acid, p-cymene, b-pinene, y-terpinene, tepinene-4-ol, palmitic acid, and xylene. Eight different compounds, including thymol, p-cymene, y-terpinene, bi-pinene, limonene, and more, are present in the hydrodistilled oil. Carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, dipentene, -terpenine, and y-terpinene are all present in the plant's fruits.


  • Kingdom: Plantae
  • Subkingdom: Tracheobionota
  • Species: Ammi
  • Division: Magnoliophyta
  • Order: Apiales
  • Class: Magnoliopsida
  • Subclass: Rosidae
  • Family: Apiaceae
  • Genus: Trachyspermum


It is primarily grown in dry or semi-dry regions. It is Egyptian in origin. It now flourishes in nations like Iran (Baluchistan's eastern areas), Pakistan, Iraq, Afghanistan, and India. It is grown in Rajasthan, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh among other states in India.

Other Names

  • Sanskrit name - Bhutika, Ajamodika, Yamini, Yaminiki, Yaviniki, Deepyaka, 
  • English name - Bishop's weed, Carom Seeds
  • Oriya name – Juani
  • Hindi name - Ajwain, Jevain
  • Marathi name - Onva
  • Kannada name - Oma, Yom, Omu
  • Tamil name - Omam
  • Gujarati name - Ajma, Ajmo, Yavan, Javain
  • Telugu name - Vamu
  • Punjabi name – Jabain, Ajvain, Ajowan
  • Bengali name - Yamani, Yoyana, Yauvan, Yavan, Javan
  • Malayalam name - Oman, Ayanodakan
  • Hungarian name - Ajovan
  • Russian name - Aiova, Azhgon
  • Assamese name - Jain
  • South Khorasan name - Ajgho
  • Baluchi name - Ajowan and Spirca
  • Dutch name - Ajowan
  • Farsi name - Nanakhaha
  • Malaysia name - Oman
  • French name – Ajowan, Ajouan, Ammi
  • Arabic name - Khella, Kamme Muluki, Kyunulmuluki
  • Persian name - Nankhah, Zenian, Khordaneh,
  • German name – Ajowan, Adiowan
  • Thai name - Phak chi

Ayurvedic Properties


Hindi / Sanskrit


Rasa (Taste)

Tikta, Katu

Bitter, Pungent

Guna (Physical Property)

Teekshna, Laghu, Ruksha

Sharp, Light, Dry

Virya (Potency)



Vipaka (Post-Digestive Taste)



Effects on doshas

It supports Kapha and Vata maintenance. It makes pitta more effective.

Classical categorization

Charak Samhita

Sushrut Samhita

Shulaprashamana – Herbs for pain relief and colic


Practical Uses

  • Analgesic - This herb, which is of the opioid class, exhibits beneficial analgesic effects.

  • Antimicrobial - The methanol extract of the plant shows great effect on the gram-positive and gram-negative microbes such as on multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. The chemical thymol found in plants tends to stop microbial activity.

  • Antispasmodic and hepatoprotective - Calcium channels are affected by the chemicals in the plant because they block them. By bringing the levels of liver enzymes back to normal, it demonstrates hepatoprotective qualities.

Anti-inflammatory - The plant's seeds have anti-inflammatory properties.
    • Gastrointestinal effects - The fruits have effects on stomach ulcers and tummy aches.

    • Shows protease activity - It works as a digestive tonic and is successful in treating issues with the stomach and small intestine.

    • Anti-tussive effect - The plant has an impact on the coughing issue.
      Shows Antiplatelet-aggregatory effect - Platelet aggregation is inhibited by the dried extract of Yavani seed.
      Anti-filarial activity - Fruit extracts in methanol exhibit activity against adult Setaria digitata worms, human filarial worms, and more.
      Anti-Hyperlipidemic Effect - The herb is quite effective against hyperlipidemia.
      Anti-Fertility Effects - Fruit extracts significantly reduce fertility in a dose-dependent manner.
      Bronchodilator Effect - The plant's bronchodilator action on asthmatic airways is demonstrated using a boiled extract.

Other uses

  • Joint pain can be relieved by the plant's oil. Wounds were also treated with it.
  • To treat conditions including flatulence, a lack of appetite, and indigestion, the plant water is distilled.

Parts Used

Seeds, Fruits 


  • Distilled – 5 to 10 drops
  • Fruits - 1 to 3 grams
  • Oil – 1 to 3 drops

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