Gambhari, Gmelina arborea

A deciduous tree that grows up to 20 meters in height is called Gmelina arborea. The bark has a light grayish-white tint and flakes off in small pieces. The leaves are simple, opposite, and heart-shaped, measuring 10–25 cm in length and 8–20 cm in width. The bisexual flowers are crimson to yellow in color and resemble vasa flowers. The fruits are round, orange-yellow drupes with one to two seeds that release a sweetish odor as they ripen.

The root portions have an uneven surface, are nearly cylindrical, and are a grayish-brown color. It has a rough, brittle bark and is primarily made of wood. The seeds have a thin, paper-like, oily seed covering and a firm, oblong surface.

General Description

Among the Dashamoola group of plants (a collection of ten roots), the fast-growing deciduous tree known as Gambhari can be found. Gambhari is a well-known bitter tonic, and its fruits can help strengthen people who are weak. Pitta and Vata illnesses are treated by it. Gambhari was historically used extensively as an anthelmintic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-aging, analgesic, diuretic, hepato-protective, and antiepileptic agent due to the therapeutic properties of its roots, fruits, and leaves. This tree produces fruit in May and June.

  • Its roots contain a small amount of benzoic acid and yellow viscous, oil, resin, and an alkaloid.
  • Tartaric and butyric acids, sugar, and a small amount of tannin make up fruits.
  • Its leaves contain luteolin, a flavonoid-classified antioxidant that is an antioxidant.


  • Kingdom: Plantae
  • Class: Angiosperms
  • Subclass: Eudicots
  • Super order: Asterids
  • Order: Lamiaceae
  • Family: Verbinaceae
  • Genus: Gmelina
  • Species: G. arborea


Gambhari is a plant that originated in Pakistan, Bhutan, and India and is now found everywhere from Brazil to Indo-Malaysia. It is found all over India, from moist deciduous forests like the Himalayas to the Deccan Peninsula in Nilgiri and the eastern and western Ghats. Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Dehra Dun, Orissa, West Bengal, Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and the Andaman Islands are among the places where it is found. Additionally, it naturally grows in southern regions of China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. It has also been widely planted in Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Malaysia, and other nations on an experimental basis.

These trees thrive in fertile, moist soil with good drainage. After the drupes fall to the ground during the wet season, they reproduce naturally.


  • Hindi Name - Gambhara
  • Telugu Name - Peggumudu
  • Tamil Name - Umi-thekku
  • Bengali Name - gamar
  • Punjabi Name - Gambhari
  • Marathi Name - Shivana,
  • Gujarati Name - Savan
  • Tamil Name - Gumadi
  • Malayalam Name - kumilu, kumiska, pokki, Kumbil, kumbulu

Ayurvedic Properties


Hindi / Sanskrit


Rasa (Taste)

Tikta, Kashaya, Madhura

Bitter, Astringent, Sweet

Guna (Physical Property)



Virya (Potency)



Vipaka (Post-Digestive Taste)



Effects on Doshas

It balances Vata and Pitta Doshas.

Charak Samhita

Sushruta Samhita


  • Shothahara - A group of plants for reducing inflammation
  • Dahaprasahmana - A group of herbs that can soothe burning
  • Virechanopaga - A group of herbs that are helpful in Virechana
  • Sarivadi
  • Brihat Panchamula
  • Sarivadi

Practical Uses

  • This herb has the ability to reduce both inflammation and pain.
  • Herb is useful for enhancing the body's absorption and digestion.
  • Beneficial for maintaining heart health.
  • helpful in preserving a healthy blood pressure level.
  • It is utilized to enhance brain function and has an intelligence-enhancing property.
  • It has an organic anti-aging substance.
  • It is a natural plant that prevents hemorrhages and increases the body's natural strength.
  • It possesses qualities that make it a potent aphrodisiac.
  • It has a diuretic effect.
  • One of the helpful herbs has properties that help nursing mothers produce more milk.
  • Gambhari fruit is useful for hemorrhoids.
  • Semen production and quality are enhanced by its qualities.
  • The fruit of the gambhari is also effective at nourishing hair and fostering hair growth.
  • It can alleviate burning sensations.
  • This herbaceous plant's fruit has been discovered to be an effective natural treatment for a variety of bleeding issues, including heavy periods and nose bleeding.
  • It relieves emaciation, Vata problems, and thirst.
  • The use of Gambhari roots as a treatment for ascites caused by Vata
  • It aids in bringing the unusually high temperature back to normal.
  • The fruits offer beneficial anabolic effects in tuberculosis to quicken the recovery of lung cavitation.
  • Applying a paste made from the leaves externally to the forehead reduces headaches, particularly when there is a fever.
  • Abdominal tumors can be treated using a decoction of its root.
  • Flowers can be used to treat leprosy.
  • For hallucinations, piles, stomach pain, burning feelings, fever, tridoshas illnesses, and urinary infections, root and bark are helpful herbal remedies.

Part Used

  • Root
  • Fruit
  • Flower
  • Leaves


  • Root bark decoction 50-100 ml
  • Fruit powder 1-3 g

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