Varuna (Crataeva nurvala)

The Crataeva nurvala tree is a medium-sized, deciduous tree that can reach a height of 50 feet. Varuna leaves are trifoliate, 8 to 12 cm in length, with oval or ovoid leaflets. The bark is brown and smooth, and the branches are white with purple and yellow undertones. The aromatic flowers have greenish-white, creamy, or light yellowish colors; the bark has gray-colored, smooth horizontal creases. The fruits are 2.5 cm in diameter and resemble ovoid berries that turn crimson when ripe. The seeds are composed of multiple seeds that are encased in new yellow pulp. The herbs bloom in March, and in June they begin to bear fruit.

General Information

Synonyms for crataeva nurvala include three-leaved caper, barun, baruna, crataeva, borun, holy garlic pear, fearful lingam tree, and triune. The bark of this herb has been utilized for over 3,000 years in Ayurveda medicine to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy, kidney stones, urinary tract infections, and problems related to the prostate. Bark has laxative, carminative, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. This herb is utilized to unclog blocked arteries, which is also beneficial to the heart. Ayurvedic remedies are made in large quantities using both the bark and the leaves. Alcohol, lupeol, friedlin, disogenin, and betulinic acid are produced by the tree's bark.

Flavonoids, tannins, saponins, titerpenes, alkaloids, glucosilinates, and plant sterols are the primary compounds found in this herb. Varun fruit peels are used as a dyeing mordant. Quercetin, isoquuercetin, and stachydrine are found in leaves. Fruits are high in beta-sitosterol, tricontanol, and cetyl alcohol. Varuna leaves are advised for menstrual pain, while the bark works well for treating tympanititis and spasms.

This herb works wonders for ailments affecting the kidneys. It is a highly successful herbal remedy for flatulence and other stomach issues. It also increases appetite and aids in digestion.

This herb is employed as a blood purifier in Vedic literature. This herb's bark works well for urinary tract infections. This herb was utilized to treat various forms of ashmari by Acharya Shushruta, who described it as having litholytic properties (calculi). The wood of varuna is utilized in sootikagar (a postpartum ward) and nadi Swaden (to induce sweating), according to Acharya Charak.


Basically native to Bangladesh and India, varana is frequently planted close to temples. Varuna is found all over India, particularly by streams and rivers in the sub-alpine regions. It grows virtually exclusively in semiarid areas of India. It can be found in large quantities in Bengal, Assam, Kerala, and Madhya Pradesh.


  • Kingdom - Plantae
  • Order - Brassicales
  • Family – Capparaceae


  • English name –Triune leaf tree, sacred lingam tree, Lengam tree, Three leaved caper, Holy garlic pear.
  • Hindi name – Barna, Barun, Bila
  • Kannada name – Bitusi, Doddelanage, Hoddelengae, Adhiraaja, Bilpatri
  • Telugu name – Ulimiri chettu
  • Marathi name – Hadavarna, Kawan, Kumla, Bhatavarna, 
  • Tamil name – Maralingami
  • Bengali name – Barun tiktoshak
  • Burmese name – Kadat, Kadet, Katat
  • Gujarati name – Varno, Vayavarno
  • Konkani name – Nervol
  • Malayalam name – Niravila, Nirumaliyan, kili
  • Punjabi name – Barna, Barnahi
  • Sinhala name – Lunuwarana
  • Urdu name – Barna
  • Oriya name – Barna

Ayurvedic Properties


Hindi / Sanskrit


Rasa (Taste)

Kashaya, Tikta

Astringent, Bitter

Guna (Physical Property)

Laghu, Ruksha

Light, Dry

Virya (Potency)



Vipaka (Post-Digestive Taste)



Effects on Doshas

It balances kapha and vata dosha.

Charak Samhita

Sushrut Samhita / Vagbhata


Tikta skanda - bitter-tasting herbs.

Varunadi gana

Vatadi gana

Practical uses

  • The greatest litholytic plant is varana, which has long been used to treat urolithiasis and crystalluria. Additionally, this herb is highly helpful in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
  • It is the greatest herb for treating kidney stones, kidney diseases, and other underlying renal system symptoms. It aids in the deactivation of the enzyme glycolate oxidase, which reduces the excess oxalate produced. Since oxalate is the cause of calculi, it contributes to the inhibition of calcium salt synthesis.
  • The herb varana has strong anti-inflammatory properties. It helps patients with rheumatoid arthritis feel less inflammatory. It is also used to treat stiffness, joint discomfort, and inflamed lymph nodes in the neck.
  • This herb works best to lessen uncomfortable urination brought on by an enlarged prostate. It helps the muscles of the bladder become stronger.
  • It helps in the removal of excess body toxins, particularly creatinine and urea, which are detrimental to bodily functions.
  • It supports healthy liver function and increases body metabolism. It shields the body from liver disorders and aids in restoring elevated bilirubin levels. It's regarded as the greatest herb for anorexia and liver problems. It serves as a starter, helps in the passage of feces and flatus downward, gets rid of impacted stool, and treats abdominal distention.
  • Additionally, it is used to treat adult and pediatric worm infestations.
  • The infusion of Varuna bark is beneficial in the management of lymphadenopathy, gout, and internal abscesses. Bark paste is administered topically to treat a variety of skin conditions.
  • Varun is utilized as a natural blood purifier in Ayurveda to preserve equilibrium. It is used to remove excess waste from the body and to improve blood flow, fever, and respiratory issues.
  • It is also used to flush the body of excess phlegm and bile secretions. Due to its ability to remove excess fat from the body, this herb is also beneficial for obese people.
  • This herb's bark has anti-diabetic qualities as well. It lowers blood sugar levels and aids in reducing excess insulin release.
  • Bark decoction is used to treat deep-seated, internal suppurative irritation.
  • It is applied to balance the vata and kapha doshas.

Part used

  • Bark
  • Root bark
  • Leaves
  • Stem bark


  • Decoction: 50-100ml

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