Madanaphala, Emetic Nut (Randia dumetorum)

Danphala, also known as Randia dumetorum, is a big, prickly, deciduous shrub that can reach a height of five meters. Simple, ovoid, wrinkled, glossy, and hairy in appearance are its leaves. The white flowers are solitary, and fragrant, and appear at the tips of short branches. They smell like honey. The globose, smooth, 1.8–4.5 cm long fruits have longitudinal ribs and turn yellow when ripe. Many, crushed seeds were imbedded in the foul-smelling, black pulp. Fruit is globose or widely wide, 1.8–4.5 cm long, longitudinally ribbed or smooth, yellowish brown, and topped with a persistent calyx limb. It contains many 0.4–0.6 cm long, compressed, smooth, brown, and extremely hard seeds. We refer to these seeds as "Madanphala."

General Description

One of the most widely utilized herbs in Ayurveda, known for its usage in the Vamana or vomiting therapy Panchkarma procedure, is this one. In addition, this herb has a number of health advantages. Randia uliginosa and Randia dumetorum are two of its distinct species.

Valeric acid resin, wax, several chemical components known as saponins, and some coloring material are all present in it. Citric and tartaric acids; randianin (sandianin); dumetoronins A, B, C, D, E, and F; randoside A; arachidic, lignoceric, linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids, among others, are among the other ingredients. It falls under a separate class in old Ayurvedic texts. In the event of poisoning, it is administered to cause vomiting.

It is the best emetic medication, according to Charaka, and it functions as a poison antidote for many others. It is listed within the Vamana Dravyas group, not the Vamanopagas. On the other hand, it belongs to the Asthapanapaga and Anuvasanopaga group. whereas it is regarded as a prodrug in Ashthapana and Anuvasana Dravya.

Susrutha claims that vomiting can be caused by combining rock salt, honey, and Madana flowers. Pindara of Bhavamisra was cited by Chunekarji as Randia aliginosa.


  • Kingdom - Plantae
  • Sub kingdom - Tracheobionata
  • Super division - Spermatophyta
  • Division - Magnaliophyta
  • Class - Magnoliopsida
  • Sub Class - Asteridae
  • Order - Rubiales
  • Family - Rubiaceae
  • Genus - Randia
  • Species - dumetorum


It can be found throughout India. Particularly in the subtropical Himalaya from Jammu to Sikkim, elevations of up to 4,000 feet. It can be found in all of India's tropical and subtropical forests. It can be found in the following places: Gujarat, Tamil nadu, the Dehradun and Suralik range forests, Orissa, Bengal, Bihar, and South Maharashtra, as well as the country's dry forests and coastal areas.


  • Botanical name -  Randia dumetorum
  • Common name - Madanaphala
  • Bengali name  - Manphal, Mayanaphala
  • Marathi name - Madanaphala, Gel, Gelphala 
  • Gujarati name - Mindhol, Mindhar, Mindhal 
  • Kannada name - Mangarikai, Karigidda, Kari
  • Tamil name - Marukkarai
  • Urdu name - Mainfal, Jauz-ulQai
  • English name - Emetic nut tree
  • Kashmiri name - Madanfal
  • Oria name - Palova
  • Arabic name - Jauzulaki, Ji jul kai
  • Malayalam name - Malankara, Malamkarakka
  • Punjabi name - Rara, Manphal, Mindhal 
  • Telugu name - Mrangakaya, Mongakaya
  • Assam's name - Maen, Behmona

Ayurvedic Properties


Hindi / Sanskrit


Rasa (Taste)

Tikta, Madhura

Bitter, Sweet

Guna (Physical Property)

Ruksha, Laghu

Dry,  Light

Virya (Potency)



Vipaka (Post-Digestive Taste)



Effects on Doshas

It balances the vata and kapha doshas.

Classical Categorization

Charak Samhita

Sushrut Samhita


  • Asthapanopaga - Herb group utilized in Asthapana type of Basti (enema treatment by decoction)
  • Anuvasanopaga - Herb group utilized in Anuvasana basti (oil enema)
  • Vamana Dravya - Group of emetic herbs
  • Phalini - a group of herbs where the fruit is the part used.
  • Aragvadhadi,
  • Muskakadi,
  • Urdhabhagahara
  • Aragvadhadi

Practical Uses

  • Antibacterial activity - This plant is used to treat a variety of bacterial diseases since it has anti-bacterial properties.
  • Anti-allergic activity - It is used to treat colds, rhinitis, and asthma.
  • Anti-inflammatory activity - It helps treat edema and rheumatism and is highly good in reducing inflammation (shoth).
  • Analgesic activity - It acts as a pain reliever (shoolanashaka). It's applied to stomach aches.
  • Immunomodulatory activity - It gives the body more energy to fight off diseases and strengthens immunity.
  • It is among the strong medications used to treat emesis. In Ayurveda, it is utilized in emesis therapy. It is applied to many poisonous situations.
  • It is used to treat flatulence, celiac disease, skin conditions, and ulcers.
  • It also aids in lowering cholesterol.

Part Used

Roots, fruit.


  • Vomiting therapy - 3 - 6 g.
  • Therapeutic - 1 gram.

Side Effects

Overdosing on it can result in anorexia, dyspepsia, and excessive vomiting.

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