Makoy (Solanum nigrum)

Makoy is known by its scientific name, Solanum nigrum. Black Night Shade is the alternate name. Its distinctive characteristics include being an Ayurvedic herb that is tiny, upright, delicate, and soft, with smooth, soft stems and branches. Makoy provides a wide range of health advantages, including analgesic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, sedative (by nature), and diaphoretic effects. When used locally, Makoy herb also treats skin conditions like burns, itching, and pain.


Makoy is a common shrub or herb that grows quickly and can be found in a variety of settings, including wooded areas. Its leaves are 1.6 to 3.0 inches long and 1 to 2 inches wide, with an oval or heart-shaped form. Its height ranges from 12 to 47 inches. Bright yellow anthers envelop the curving petals, which have a greenish-white hue. These makoy berries measure 6 to 8 mm and have a color ranging from purple-black to dull black. When these berries ripen, they turn red in India.


  • Sanskrit name: Kakamachi, Kakahva
  • English name: Garden Night Shade, Common nightshade
  • Hindi name: Makoy
  • Kannada name: Ganikegida, Ganike,Ganikayeagida 
  • Marathi name: Kamoni
  • Urdu name: Makoh, Mako
  • Tamil name: Manarthakkali, Manaththakkali
  • Telugu name: Kamanchi
  • Punjabi name: Mako

Sanskrit Synonyms:-

  • Bahuphala: contains a lot of fruits
  • Sarvattikta, Bahutikta: Fruit taste is bitter.
  • Gucchaphala: Found among bunches of fruits
  • Kustagni: cures skin diseases
  • Vayasi, Kakamachi, Kakini, and Kakahva: The fruits are liked by crows.

Important Characteristic:-

The makoy is regarded as a toxic plant. The leaves of the plant have the property of cleaning which when taken results in too much of sweating. It enhances and encourages sweating, which aids in regulating and preserving body temperature.


This 30- to 45-cm weed is typically grown on roadsides and in gardens. It is native to arid regions of India. Additionally, temperate Asia, Africa, Japan, and Europe are home to S. nigrum.

Parts Used:-

The whole plant,  fruits, fresh leaves.


  • Latin name: Solanum nigrum
  • Family: Solanaceae
  • Kingdom: Plantae
  • Order: Solanales
  • Genus: Solanum
  • Species: S. nigrum

Medicinal Properties


Hindi / Sanskrit


Rasa (Taste)



Guna (Physical Property)

Snigdha, Laghu

Slimy,  Light

Virya (Potency)



Vipaka (Post-Digestive Taste)



Effect on Dosha

It is believed to calm the "Pitta" and "Kapha" doshas; but, because it is hot and dry, it may aggravate the "Vata" dosha.

Chemical Composition

Numerous chemical compounds, including gallic acid, rutin, naringenin, alpha, sapogenin, diosgenin, epicatechin, and solasonine, are abundant in the herb.

Medicinal Uses of Makoy

  • Expectorant
  • Analgesic
  • Antibiotic
  • Anti-allergic
  • Anti-diabetic
  • Cardiotonic
  • Good herbal diuretic
  • Sedative
  • Diaphoretic
  • Skin diseases
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antiseptic

Traditional Uses

  • Rasayani: Anti-aging results in the renewal of tissues and cells.
  • Hrudya: Serves as a heart-friendly cardiac tonic.
  • Vrushya: Aphrodisiac; increases vitality.
  • Sara: Increases movement, induces diarrhea and purgation, and eases constipation.
  • Svarya: Increases the quality and tone of voice.
  • Netrahita: Beneficial for eyes.
  • Shukrada: Increase sperm quality.

Health Benefits of Makoy

  • Leaf poultices are prepared and applied locally for aching joints.
  • The plant's roots are used to treat sleeplessness. After boiling the roots in water, a decoction is made, strained, and consumed in 10–20 milliliters.
  • Lukewarm leaf juice is used to make ear drops, which are used to relieve earache.
  • The term "stomatitis" refers to mucous membrane irritation in the mouth. The illness is known in Hindi as Mukh-Pak. Chewing five or six fresh leaves of this herb is beneficial.
  • The plant's juice is administered in this situation. In the earthen jug, fresh juice is removed and cooked until it changes color. For a few days, a dose of 25–50 ml is administered.
  • The plant decoction is prepared in spleen enlargement. Cumin seeds and sendha namak are combined in this decoction, which is consumed all at once.
  • A paste made from leaves is created and administered externally to treat skin diseases.
  • The fresh leaves are prepared similarly to how we prepare vegetables by adding jeera and onions. The juice of fresh leaves is often consumed to treat ulcers and stomach issues.
  • Berries are good for your respiratory system.
  • This herb's juice is used to reduce pain and treat fever.
  • Juice also helps with painful menstruation.
  • Makoy fruit has cosmetic uses. To get rid of freckles, rub seeds on your cheeks.
  • With Makoy, a variety of skin conditions like acne, psoriasis, and freckles can be resolved.
  • used as an enema for babies with unsettled stomachs.
  • This herb's stem, leaves, and roots can be decocted to treat wounds and malignant sores.
  • in gum conditions.
  • The eye is fumigated with leaves rubbed with ghee and butter in cases of eye disorders such as conjunctivitis and itching sensation.
  • For scalp hair to have a better color, strengthen the hair roots.
  • For the treatment of urticarial patches, 20 to 30 milliliters of mashed ginger are administered together with Makoy juice.
  • Rat bite treatment as well as an antidote to opium toxicity.


Solanine and glycoalkaloid are found in makos. The herb's toxicity varies depending on the individual. Everything is based on the maturity, season, climate, and type of soil. In general, it is believed that ripe berries are less harmful than green, immature berries. There are also a few reported incidences of toxicity from consuming the plant's mature berries. Since the plant is deemed edible after cooking, the poisonous components are eliminated through boiling or decoction.


  • Because makowi is poisonous, it should not be given to any pediatric age group.
  • Excessive dosages can cause paralysis attacks, vomiting, diarrhea, convulsions, and cardiac arrhythmias that result in death.
  • When ingested, leaves have a strong purgative effect and cause profuse perspiration.

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