Maricha, Black Pepper (Piper nigrum)

Maricha is a robust climber plant that can reach a maximum height of ten meters. This plant's stem has knots where the leaves, accidental roots, and fruits protrude. The almond-shaped, leathery-textured leaves are placed alternately on the stalk and have a pale green underside and a shiny, dark green upper side. They are around 6 to 10 cm long. 

Clusters of whitish or yellowish-green flowers are found along the stalk. The round-shaped fruits have a single seed inside and range in number from 40 to 60 per spike. They are green when they first appear and turn red as they develop. The green fruits are dried until the flesh becomes wrinkled and dark gray around the single hard seed. At that point, the fruit can either be preserved intact or pounded into black pepper.

General Description

One herb that can worsen pitta is maricha. Around the world, black pepper is a highly valued and well-liked ingredient in cookery. In addition to being used to flavor food, this herb has therapeutic properties. Along with other therapeutic benefits, it can lessen bloating and flatulence by enhancing the digestive system's performance.

The green, unripe pepper fruit is dried to create black pepper. It is sun-dried or machine-dried for several days, which causes pepper to develop wrinkles and black spots. It is then referred to as black peppercorn.

N-trans-feruloytyramine, pipercide, Methylenedioxcycinnamic, piperettine, ascorbic acid, trichostachine, citronellol, serine, cryptone, piperonal, camphene, pipecolic acid, cryptone, piperonal, threonine, carotene, and piperine are some of the chemical components of maricha.


  • Kingdom – Plantae
  • Division - Magnoliophyta
  • Class - Equisetopsida
  • Subclass - Magnoliidae
  • Superorder - Magnolianae
  • Order - Piperales
  • Family - Piperaceae
  • Genus – Piper
  • Species - Nigrum


It is grown in the humid tropical regions of Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Assam, and the hills of southwest India. Additionally, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka grow it. West Indies and South America.


  • Hindi Name - Gulmirch, Golmirch, Choco mirch, Kalimirch, Mirch
  • English Name - Black Pepper, Common Pepper, Pepper
  • Persian Name – Pilpil, Filfile aswad, Filfile siyah 
  • Arabian Name – Filfil aswad
  • Telugu Name – Miriyalu
  • Punjabi Name – Kali mirch
  • Bengali Name - Murichung, Kolukung, Muricha, Kala Moricha, Golmarich, Vellajung
  • Tamil Name - Milagu
  • Marathi Name – Mirin, Kalamiri
  • Gujarati Name – Kalamuri, Kalominch, Kalamire, Kalamri 
  • Kannada Name –  Kalu Menasu, Olle Menasu, Kari Manesu
  • Malayalam Name- Kurumulaku, Lada, Nallamulaku, Nalla muluka
  • Konkani Name – Kare Menasu
  • Urdu Name – Filfilsiyah, Kalimirch
  • French Name - Poivre Blanc, Poivre Noir, Poivre Commun
  • German Name - Grüner Pfeffer, Schwarzer Pfeffer, Pfeffer
  • Japanese Name - Koshou, Peppaa, Pepaa, Bura- kku Peppaa
  • Spanish Name - Pimient

Ayurvedic Properties


Hindi / Sanskrit


Rasa (Taste)



Guna (Physical Property)

Laghu, Tikshna, Sookshma

Light, Minute and Piercing

Virya (Potency)



Vipaka (Post-Digestive Taste)



Effects on Doshas

It balances Kapha and Vata doshas.

Classical Categorization

Charaka Samhita

Sushrut Samhita


  • Deepaneeya – A Group of herbs that improve digestion strength.
  • Shoolanut, Shoola Prashamana – Group of herbs beneficial in pain, and abdominal colic
  • Krimighna – Herbs de-worming group.
  • Shiro Virechanopaga – A group of herbs helpful in expelling Doshas from the head and neck.
  • Pippalyadi,
  • Trayushana
  • Pippalyadi,
  • Trayushana

Practical Uses of Piper nigrum

Many medical benefits can be derived from piper nigrum, including its ability to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, fight cancer, reduce inflammation, fight bacteria, prevent diarrhea, act as an anthelmintic, reduce stress, fight diabetes, and fight fever.

  • It is used to treat indigestion, gas, bloating, and flatulence.
  • It has a warming quality to it and relieves cough and cold symptoms.
  • An excellent appetite stimulant that relieves nausea and indigestion.
  • In cholera situations, it can stop vomiting.
  • When treating ailments including dyspepsia, flatulence, gonorrhea, cough, hemorrhoids, intermittent fevers, piles, elephantiasis, and malarial and intermittent fever, black pepper is typically recommended.
  • Because the Maricha plant is an abortifacient, it can cause an abortion.
  • It offers pain alleviation.
  • It's also used for paraplegia and rheumatic conditions.
  • It vigorously combats bacteria and is a good antibacterial agent as well.
  • Because it may stop the growth of infectious organisms, this plant is effective at preventing illness.
  • A powerful agent against fever as well.
  • Its diaphoretic properties cause perspiration to be stimulated.
  • Additionally, it is a helpful herb that prevents liver damage because it is hepatoprotective.
  • An effective hypotensive that decreases blood pressure as well.
  • It is beneficial for lowering tension.
  • It is an antiaggregant that inhibits the formation of thrombi and reduces platelet aggregation.
  • Moreover, it has anticatarrhal properties that aid in the body's expulsion of extra mucus.
  • Additionally, it works well for managing or controlling diabetes.
  • Possessing antiparasitic properties that shield the body.
  • A beneficial plant that helps a person reduce or manage their weight.
  • Carminative in character and flatulence-preventive.
  • Additionally, Cholagogue helps in the promotion of bile excretion from the body or downward purging.
  • When used topically, rubefacients dilate capillaries and enhance blood circulation, which results in skin that is red.

Part Used

Dried Fruits


Powder: 0.5 grams to 1.5 grams


  • It should not be used as medicine for pregnant women since it contains piperine, which has an abortifacient effect.
  • Alcohol shouldn't be consumed along with it.
  • Given its strong potency, a prolonged high dose should not be consumed.
  • Overindulgence exacerbates Pitta Dosha.
  • A high dosage could irritate the stomach.

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